Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2020, Page: 14-21
LPG Cookstove Use and Fuel Subsidies in the Cuzco Region of Peru
James Keese, Social Sciences Department, Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, USA
Carolina Guzman Vazquez, Social Sciences Department, Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, USA
Maya O’Brien, Social Sciences Department, Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, USA
Brooke Richter, Social Sciences Department, Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo, USA
Received: Mar. 24, 2020;       Accepted: Apr. 9, 2020;       Published: Apr. 23, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijsdr.20200601.13      View  300      Downloads  124
2.8 billion people around the globe continue to use open fires and biomass stoves for cooking and heating. Household air pollution is a serious health hazard, especially for women and children. A solution involves promoting so-called clean fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The purpose of this research is to examine the use of LPG cookstoves in the Cuzco Region of Peru. A specific focus is on the Peruvian government’s FISE gas subsidy program. Surveys were administered to seventy-seven households in four indigenous agriculturalist communities over two different years. The results show the widespread use of gas stoves, but only as a supplement to wood and other biomass. We concluded that FISE is well organized, easy to use, and properly targets low income households. However, while the LPG subsidy program does promote the use of some gas, it is insufficient to prompt a complete fuel switch given current prices and resource availability. This research critiques the energy ladder model for fuel switching, and the results reveal that the use of multiple fuels, or fuel stacking, continues to be the norm. Furthermore, the data suggest an increase in eucalyptus and pine reforestation efforts, which will impact the relative scarcity of fuels, fuel choice, and health in the rural areas of the Cuzco Region.
LPG Cookstoves, Household Air Pollution, Fuel Subsidies, Peru
To cite this article
James Keese, Carolina Guzman Vazquez, Maya O’Brien, Brooke Richter, LPG Cookstove Use and Fuel Subsidies in the Cuzco Region of Peru, International Journal of Sustainable Development Research. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2020, pp. 14-21. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsdr.20200601.13
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
WHO (World Health Organization). (2018, May 8). Household air pollution and health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/household-air-pollution-and-health.
N. Bruce, R. Perez-Padilla and R. Albalak (2000). “Indoor air pollution in developing countries: A major environmental and public health challenge,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78 (9), 1078-1092.
H. Warwick and A. Doig (2004). “Smoke: The Killer in the Kitchen”, London: ITDG Publishing.
K. R. Smith (2006). Health impacts of household fuelwood use in developing countries. Unasylva, 57, 41-44.
K. R. Smith and A. Sagar (2014). Making the clean available: Escaping India’s Chulha Trap. Energy Policy, 75, 410-414.
M. Agurto Adrianzén (2013). Improved cooking stoves and firewood consumption: Quasi-experimental evidence from the northern Peruvian Andes. Ecological Economics, 89, 135-143.
T. Urmee and S. Gyamfi (2014). A review of improved cookstove technologies and programs. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 33, 625-635.
K. Pine, R. Edwards, O. Masera, A. Schilmann, A. Marrón-Mares, and H. Rojas-Rodríguez (2011). Adoption and use of improved biomass stoves in rural Mexico. Energy and Sustainable Development, 15, 176-183.
L. Ruiz-Mercado, O. Masera, H. Zamora, and K. R. Smith (2011). Adoption and sustained use of improved cookstoves. Energy Policy, 39, 7557-7566.
C. Bielecki and G. Wingenbach (2014). Rethinking improved cookstove diffusion programs: A case study of social perceptions and cooking choices in rural Guatemala. Energy Policy, 66, 350-358.
T. Sesan (2014). Global Imperatives, local contingencies: An analysis of divergent priorities and dominant perspectives in stove development from the 1970s to date. Progress in Development Studies, 14 (1), 3-20.
K. R. Smith, J. P. McCracken, M. W. Weber, A. Hubbard, AJenny, L. M. Thompson, J. Balmes, A. Diaz, B. Arana, and N. Bruce (2011). Effect of reduction in household air pollution on childhood pneumonia in Guatemala (RESPIRE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 378 (9804), 1717-1726.
K. Mortimer, C. B., Ndamala, A. W.., Naunje, J. Malava, C. Katundu, W. Weston, D. Havens, D. Pope, N. G. Bruce, M. Nyirenda, D. Wang, A. Crampin, J. Grigg, J. Balmes, and S. B. Gordon, S. B. (2017). A cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under 5 years old in rural Malawi (the Cooking and Pneumonia Study): a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 389, 167-175.
J. Rosenthal, A. Quinn, A. P. Grieshop, A. Pillarisetti, and R. I. Glass (2018). Clean cooking and the SDGs: Integrated analytical approaches to guide energy interventions for health and environment goals. Energy for Sustainable Development, 42, 152-159.
ADP (Accenture Development Partnerships). (2012). Global alliance for clean cookstoves: Peru market assessment sector mapping. Retrieved from http://cleancookstoves.org/resources_files/peru-market-assessment-sector-mapping.pdf.
M. Kojima, R. Bacon and Z. Zhou (2011). Who uses bottled gas? Evidence from households in developing countries. The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 5731.
K. Troncoso, A. Soares da Silva (2017). LPG fuel subsidies in Latin America and the use of solid fuels to cook. Energy Policy, 107, 188-196.
J. Keese, A. Camacho, and A. Chavez (2017). Follow-up study of improved cookstoves in the Cuzco region of Peru. Development in Practice, 27 (1), 26-36. DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2017.1257565.
N. Schlag and F. Zuzarte (2008). Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review (An SEI Working Paper). Stockholm Environment Institute.
B. Van der Kroon, B., Brouwer and P. Van Beukering (2013). The energy ladder: Theoretical myth or empirical truth? Results from a met-analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 20, 504-513.
J. Calzada and A. Sanz (2018). Universal access to clean cookstoves: Evaluation of a public program in Peru. Energy Policy, 118, 559-572.
C. Gould. and J. Urpelainen (2018). LPG as a clean cooking fuel: Adoption, use, and impact in rural India. Energy Policy, 66, 395-408.
FISE (Fondo de Inclusión Social Energético). (2018a). Gas doméstico. Retrieved from http://www.fise.gob.pe/
Horgque, J. C. (2018). Supervisor, Fondo de Inclusión Social Energético (FISE). Personal communication. Cuzco, Peru.
APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) (2015). Peer Review on Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reforms in Peru, Final Report. Nathan Associates Inc. for the US-APEC Technical Assistance to Advance Regional Integration Project.
FISE (Fondo de Inclusión Social Energético) (2018b). Informe del Program FISE Marzo 2018. Cuzco, Peru: FISE.
World Bank (2019a). Gross national income per capita 2018, atlas method and ppp. Retrieved from https://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/GNIPC.pdf.
INEI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística Informática). (2018). Pobreza monetaria afectó al 21,7% de la población del país durante el año 2017. Retrieved from https://www.inei.gob.pe/prensa/noticias/pobreza-monetaria-afecto-al-217-de-la-poblacion-del-pais-durante-el-ano-2017-10711/.
Microsol. (2017). Improved Cookstove Benefits. Retrieved from www.microsol-int.com/microsol.
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency). (2019). The World Factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pe.html.
T. Takama, S. Tsephel, and F. X. Johnson (2012). Evaluating the relative strength of product-specific factors in fuel switching and stove choice decisions in Ethiopia. A discrete choice model of household preferences for clean cooking alternatives. Energy Economics, 34, 1763-1773.
J. Luzar (2007). The Political Ecology of “Forest Transition”: Eucalyptus forestry in the Southern Peruvian Andes. Ethnobotany Research & Applications, 5, 85-93.
World Bank. (2019b). Electric power consumption (kWh per capita). Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC.
Browse journals by subject