International Journal of Sustainable Development Research

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Towards Programs Sustainability: An Exploration of Socio-Economic Determinants for Effective Community Participation in Development Programs in Tanzania

Received: 8 September 2021    Accepted: 24 September 2021    Published: 30 September 2021
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Abstract

The Late President of the United Republic of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius. K. Nyerere in his book titled freedom and development published in 1973 once stressed that ‘if real development is to take place, the people have to be involved’. Similarly, several scholars strongly advocate for the involvement of people in development undertakings that have impact on their day to day lives. On account of such public outcry and views from various scholars with regard to the essence of peoples’ involvement in development initiatives within their communities, this study set out to empirically examine the determinants of effective community participation in development programs. Specifically, the study focused on exploring socio-economic determinants for effective community participation in development programs. The study employed a cross – sectional research design and a case study research strategy. Sampling procedures included purposive sampling for key informants and random sampling for programme beneficiaries. By using a 95% confidence level and Yamane 1967 formula for sample size determination, a sample of 316 program beneficiaries from three study areas of Arusha, Morogoro and Iringa within Tanzania were involved in the study. The findings of the study show that, despite of the existence of several socio-economic determinants for effective community participation in development programs, two determinants i.e., Resource availability and Literacy level of the participants were found to be the major socio – economic determinants for effective participation of community members in development programs. On account of these findings, the study recommends the need to ensure that issues relating to resource availability in any development program and literacy level of the participants need to always be looked into and addressed so that people can effectively participate with the intention of contributing to the sustainability of the program.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijsdr.20210703.13
Published in International Journal of Sustainable Development Research (Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2021)
Page(s) 61-70
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Sustainability, Program Sustainability, Community Participation, Socio-economic Determinants

References
[1] Beck. A & Crawley. C (2002): Education, ownership and solutions: the role of community involvement in achieving grass roots sustainability, Regional Institute Online Publishing, North South Wales, Australia.
[2] Schutte, D. W. (2000): Community Development and Community Participation: A Conceptual Revisit. Entwicklungsethnologie, 9 (1), 12-26. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/28898875/CommunityDevelopment_and_Community_Participation_a_Conceptual_Revisit_De_Wet_Schutte_1.
[3] Odoyo. C (2013): Factors affecting implementation of community projects: Case of Kimira-Oluch smallholder farm improvement project in Homa Bay County, Kenya. Universal Journal of Management, 1 (2), 111–118.
[4] Masanyiwa. Z. S and Kinyashi. G. F (2008): Analysis of Community Participation in Projects Managed by Non-Governmental Organizations, Institute of Development Studies, London, UK.
[5] Berman, T (2017) Public Participation as a Tool for Integrating Local Knowledge into Spatial Planning, Department of Geography and Human Environment, Tel. Aviv University, Isreal, Springer International Publishing.
[6] Asaduzzaman, M (2008): Governance in Practice: Decentralization and People’s Participation in Local Governance. Published PhD Thesis, University of Tampere Press.
[7] Nazneen, D. R. Z. A (2004): Popular Participation in Local Administration: A Case of Gyan Bitarani, Dhak.
[8] Mnaranara. T (2010). The importance of community participation in construction of primary schools. A Case study of Mlali and Mzumbe ward. University of Agder, Norway- Unpublished Thesis.
[9] Bamber. J, Owens. S, Schonfeld. H, Ghate. D and Fulerton. D (2010): Effective Community Development Programs: A Review of International Evidence Base. Published by the Centre for Effective Services, Dublin, Iceland.
[10] Sebastian. I. C, Eduard. G. C, Cristian, E. L and Luliana. L (2018): Community Based Programs Sustainability. A Multidimensional Analysis of Sustainability Factors.
[11] Wasilwa. C (2015): Effects of Community Participation on Sustainability of Community Based Development Projects in Kenya, Unpublished.
[12] Akumu. M and Onono. P (2017): Community Participation and Sustainability of the Kenya Comprehensive School Health Program in Kajiado County, Kenya, Unpublished.
[13] UNDP (2013): Human Development Report. The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World, New York.
[14] Monaledi, MHA (2016): The relationship between community participation and the sustainability of CSR projects. The case of Groutegeluk coal mine in Lethalale local municipality, North-west University. Unpublished.
[15] Lyons, M., Smuts, C., & Stephens, A. (2001). ‘Participation, empowerment, and sustainability: (How) do the links work?’. Urban Studies.
[16] Khwaja, A. I. (2001), Can good projects succeed in bad communities? Collective action in the Himalayas” Harvard University, Department of Economics, Cambridge, Mass.
[17] Mansuri, G. and Rao, V. (2004), Community-based and driven development: A critical review. The World Bank Research Observer.
[18] Evan, T (2019): Understanding Social Economics. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/social-economics.asp.
[19] Mwiru. M. S (2015): The Importance of Community Participation in Development Projects at the Local University. Mzumbe University- Unpublished.
[20] Uemura, M. (1999). Community Participation in Education. What do we know? The World Bank. United Republic of Tanzania, Local Government Reform Programme Policy Paper on Local Government Reform. Ministry of Regional Administration and Local Government. Dar es. Salaam, October, 1998.
[21] Sheikh, N. (2010). People's Participation in Development Projects at Grass-root Level: A case of a Lampur and Jagannathpur Union Parishad. North South University, Bangldesh.
[22] Kumar. R (2011): Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step guide for beginners, 3rd Edition, SAGE Publishers, New Delhi, India.
[23] Yin, R (2003): Applications of Case Study Research (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, London.
[24] Arnstein. S (1969): The Ladder of Citizen Participation. The Journal of the American Planning Association, 35, (4): 216-224.
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  • APA Style

    Daniel Wandera Clief Naku, Jacob Kihila, Eleuther Alphonse Mwageni. (2021). Towards Programs Sustainability: An Exploration of Socio-Economic Determinants for Effective Community Participation in Development Programs in Tanzania. International Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 7(3), 61-70. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijsdr.20210703.13

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    ACS Style

    Daniel Wandera Clief Naku; Jacob Kihila; Eleuther Alphonse Mwageni. Towards Programs Sustainability: An Exploration of Socio-Economic Determinants for Effective Community Participation in Development Programs in Tanzania. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. Res. 2021, 7(3), 61-70. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsdr.20210703.13

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    AMA Style

    Daniel Wandera Clief Naku, Jacob Kihila, Eleuther Alphonse Mwageni. Towards Programs Sustainability: An Exploration of Socio-Economic Determinants for Effective Community Participation in Development Programs in Tanzania. Int J Sustain Dev Res. 2021;7(3):61-70. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsdr.20210703.13

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijsdr.20210703.13,
      author = {Daniel Wandera Clief Naku and Jacob Kihila and Eleuther Alphonse Mwageni},
      title = {Towards Programs Sustainability: An Exploration of Socio-Economic Determinants for Effective Community Participation in Development Programs in Tanzania},
      journal = {International Journal of Sustainable Development Research},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {61-70},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijsdr.20210703.13},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijsdr.20210703.13},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijsdr.20210703.13},
      abstract = {The Late President of the United Republic of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius. K. Nyerere in his book titled freedom and development published in 1973 once stressed that ‘if real development is to take place, the people have to be involved’. Similarly, several scholars strongly advocate for the involvement of people in development undertakings that have impact on their day to day lives. On account of such public outcry and views from various scholars with regard to the essence of peoples’ involvement in development initiatives within their communities, this study set out to empirically examine the determinants of effective community participation in development programs. Specifically, the study focused on exploring socio-economic determinants for effective community participation in development programs. The study employed a cross – sectional research design and a case study research strategy. Sampling procedures included purposive sampling for key informants and random sampling for programme beneficiaries. By using a 95% confidence level and Yamane 1967 formula for sample size determination, a sample of 316 program beneficiaries from three study areas of Arusha, Morogoro and Iringa within Tanzania were involved in the study. The findings of the study show that, despite of the existence of several socio-economic determinants for effective community participation in development programs, two determinants i.e., Resource availability and Literacy level of the participants were found to be the major socio – economic determinants for effective participation of community members in development programs. On account of these findings, the study recommends the need to ensure that issues relating to resource availability in any development program and literacy level of the participants need to always be looked into and addressed so that people can effectively participate with the intention of contributing to the sustainability of the program.},
     year = {2021}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Towards Programs Sustainability: An Exploration of Socio-Economic Determinants for Effective Community Participation in Development Programs in Tanzania
    AU  - Daniel Wandera Clief Naku
    AU  - Jacob Kihila
    AU  - Eleuther Alphonse Mwageni
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    DO  - 10.11648/j.ijsdr.20210703.13
    T2  - International Journal of Sustainable Development Research
    JF  - International Journal of Sustainable Development Research
    JO  - International Journal of Sustainable Development Research
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    EP  - 70
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2575-1832
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijsdr.20210703.13
    AB  - The Late President of the United Republic of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius. K. Nyerere in his book titled freedom and development published in 1973 once stressed that ‘if real development is to take place, the people have to be involved’. Similarly, several scholars strongly advocate for the involvement of people in development undertakings that have impact on their day to day lives. On account of such public outcry and views from various scholars with regard to the essence of peoples’ involvement in development initiatives within their communities, this study set out to empirically examine the determinants of effective community participation in development programs. Specifically, the study focused on exploring socio-economic determinants for effective community participation in development programs. The study employed a cross – sectional research design and a case study research strategy. Sampling procedures included purposive sampling for key informants and random sampling for programme beneficiaries. By using a 95% confidence level and Yamane 1967 formula for sample size determination, a sample of 316 program beneficiaries from three study areas of Arusha, Morogoro and Iringa within Tanzania were involved in the study. The findings of the study show that, despite of the existence of several socio-economic determinants for effective community participation in development programs, two determinants i.e., Resource availability and Literacy level of the participants were found to be the major socio – economic determinants for effective participation of community members in development programs. On account of these findings, the study recommends the need to ensure that issues relating to resource availability in any development program and literacy level of the participants need to always be looked into and addressed so that people can effectively participate with the intention of contributing to the sustainability of the program.
    VL  - 7
    IS  - 3
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Geography Department, St John’s University of Tanzania, Dodoma, Tanzania

  • Institute of Human Settlements Studies, Ardhi University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

  • Institute of Human Settlements Studies, Ardhi University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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